Put on your scrubs.

Healer's life.

medicalwatson:

sixpenceee:

If you thought the post on twins sharing consciousness was awesome, wait until you hear this.

A 44-year-old French man one day went to the trip to the doctor’s because he felt a pain in his left leg. He’s a married man with two kids and a steady job.

Doctor’s found that he had hydrocephalus as a child (when your brain is filled with fluids) so they decided to run some brain scans.

What they found was that the majority of his head was filled with fluid. Over time, the buildup caused his lateral ventricles to swell so much that his brain had been flattened to a thin sheet.

Doctors estimated that his brain mass had been reduced by at most 70%, affecting the areas in charge of motion, language, emotion, and, well, everything.

Shockingly, he was fine. While his IQ was only 75, he wasn’t mentally challenged. He held a steady job, raised a family, and didn’t have trouble interacting with others.

Over time, his brain had adapted to all that pressure, and even though he had fewer neurons that most, Jacques was still a fully functional human being.

The doctors drained the fluid and while his brain is much smaller now, he is still a healthy individual with a normal life.

SOURCE

WHAT

(via lysiacardilla)

hackelini:

Some pictures from the Body Worlds exhibit! There was much much more and a lot of explanation for organs’ duties, how cells work and the like and
it was just very interesting and exciting. The atmosphere there sure was one of a kind

(via themanfrombeyond)

kenobi-wan-obi:


The Gut-Brain Connection

Have you ever had a “gut-wrenching” experience? Do certain situations make you “feel nauseous”? Have you ever felt “butterflies” in your stomach? We use these expressions for a reason. The gastrointestinal tract is sensitive to emotion. Anger, anxiety, sadness, elation — all of these feelings (and others) can trigger symptoms in the gut.
The brain has a direct effect on the stomach. For example, the very thought of eating can release the stomach’s juices before food gets there. This connection goes both ways. A troubled intestine can send signals to the brain, just as a troubled brain can send signals to the gut. Therefore, a person’s stomach or intestinal distress can be the cause or the product of anxiety, stress, or depression. That’s because the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) system are intimately connected — so intimately that they should be viewed as one system.
This is especially true in cases where a person experiences gastrointestinal upset with no obvious physical cause. For such functional GI disorders, it is difficult to try to heal a distressed gut without considering the role of stress and emotion..
Stress and the functional GI disorders
Given how closely the gut and brain interact, it becomes easier to understand why you might feel nauseated before giving a presentation, or feel intestinal pain during times of stress. That doesn’t mean, however, that functional gastrointestinal illnesses are imagined or “all in your head.” Psychology combines with physical factors to cause pain and other bowel symptoms. Psychosocial factors influence the actual physiology of the gut, as well as symptoms. In other words, stress (or depression or other psychological factors) can affect movement and contractions of the GI tract, cause inflammation, or make you more susceptible to infection.
In addition, research suggests that some people with functional GI disorders perceive pain more acutely than other people do because their brains do not properly regulate pain signals from the GI tract. Stress can make the existing pain seem even worse.
Based on these observations, you might expect that at least some patients with functional GI conditions might improve with therapy to reduce stress or treat anxiety or depression. And sure enough, a review of 13 studies showed that patients who tried psychologically based approaches had greater improvement in their digestive symptoms compared with patients who received conventional medical treatment.
Is stress causing your symptoms?
Are your stomach problems — such as heartburn, abdominal cramps, or loose stools — related to stress? Watch for these other common symptoms of stress and discuss them with your doctor. Together you can come up with strategies to help you deal with the stressors in your life, and also ease your digestive discomforts.
Physical symptoms
Stiff or tense muscles, especially in the neck and shoulders, Headaches, Sleep problems, Shakiness or tremors, Recent loss of interest in sex, Weight loss or gain, Restlessness
Behavioral symptoms
Procrastination, Grinding teeth, Difficulty completing work assignments, Changes in the amount of alcohol or food you consume, Taking up smoking, or smoking more than usual, Increased desire to be with or withdraw from others, Rumination (frequent talking or brooding about stressful situations)
Emotional symptoms
Crying, Overwhelming sense of tension or pressure, Trouble relaxing, Nervousness, Quick temper, Depression, Poor concentration, Trouble remembering things, Loss of sense of humor, Indecisiveness

kenobi-wan-obi:

The Gut-Brain Connection

Have you ever had a “gut-wrenching” experience? Do certain situations make you “feel nauseous”? Have you ever felt “butterflies” in your stomach? We use these expressions for a reason. The gastrointestinal tract is sensitive to emotion. Anger, anxiety, sadness, elation — all of these feelings (and others) can trigger symptoms in the gut.

The brain has a direct effect on the stomach. For example, the very thought of eating can release the stomach’s juices before food gets there. This connection goes both ways. A troubled intestine can send signals to the brain, just as a troubled brain can send signals to the gut. Therefore, a person’s stomach or intestinal distress can be the cause or the product of anxiety, stress, or depression. That’s because the brain and the gastrointestinal (GI) system are intimately connected — so intimately that they should be viewed as one system.

This is especially true in cases where a person experiences gastrointestinal upset with no obvious physical cause. For such functional GI disorders, it is difficult to try to heal a distressed gut without considering the role of stress and emotion..

Stress and the functional GI disorders

Given how closely the gut and brain interact, it becomes easier to understand why you might feel nauseated before giving a presentation, or feel intestinal pain during times of stress. That doesn’t mean, however, that functional gastrointestinal illnesses are imagined or “all in your head.” Psychology combines with physical factors to cause pain and other bowel symptoms. Psychosocial factors influence the actual physiology of the gut, as well as symptoms. In other words, stress (or depression or other psychological factors) can affect movement and contractions of the GI tract, cause inflammation, or make you more susceptible to infection.

In addition, research suggests that some people with functional GI disorders perceive pain more acutely than other people do because their brains do not properly regulate pain signals from the GI tract. Stress can make the existing pain seem even worse.

Based on these observations, you might expect that at least some patients with functional GI conditions might improve with therapy to reduce stress or treat anxiety or depression. And sure enough, a review of 13 studies showed that patients who tried psychologically based approaches had greater improvement in their digestive symptoms compared with patients who received conventional medical treatment.

Is stress causing your symptoms?

Are your stomach problems — such as heartburn, abdominal cramps, or loose stools — related to stress? Watch for these other common symptoms of stress and discuss them with your doctor. Together you can come up with strategies to help you deal with the stressors in your life, and also ease your digestive discomforts.

Physical symptoms

Stiff or tense muscles, especially in the neck and shoulders, Headaches, Sleep problems, Shakiness or tremors, Recent loss of interest in sex, Weight loss or gain, Restlessness

Behavioral symptoms

Procrastination, Grinding teeth, Difficulty completing work assignments, Changes in the amount of alcohol or food you consume, Taking up smoking, or smoking more than usual, Increased desire to be with or withdraw from others, Rumination (frequent talking or brooding about stressful situations)

Emotional symptoms

Crying, Overwhelming sense of tension or pressure, Trouble relaxing, Nervousness, Quick temper, Depression, Poor concentration, Trouble remembering things, Loss of sense of humor, Indecisiveness

The corpus callosum is a thick band of nerve fibers that divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres. It connects the left and right sides of the brain allowing for communication between both hemispheres. The corpus callosum transfers motor, sensory, and cognitive information between the brain hemispheres.

Function:

The corpus callosum is involved in several functions of the body including:
  • Communication Between Brain Hemispheres
  • Eye Movement
  • Maintaining the Balance of Arousal and Attention
  • Tactile Localization
compoundfractur:

Hemopericardium is when the pericardium around your heart fills up with blood (typically from some sort of trauma). As you can imagine, if that sac fills up with blood it’s going to put pressure on the heart, not allow it to freely contract and relax and kill you (that’s called cardiac tamponade). Here we see an unopened pericardium filled with blood.

compoundfractur:

Hemopericardium is when the pericardium around your heart fills up with blood (typically from some sort of trauma). As you can imagine, if that sac fills up with blood it’s going to put pressure on the heart, not allow it to freely contract and relax and kill you (that’s called cardiac tamponade). Here we see an unopened pericardium filled with blood.

(Source: wikidoc.org, via lonewalker)

compoundchem:

These aren’t mine, but came across them today and really like the designs. Sadly, I’ve struggled to track down the identity of the original creator - if anyone here on tumblr has any idea where these originated from, it’d be great to be able to credit the person who made them, and perhaps see more of their work!

neuromorphogenesis:

Migraine is associated with variations in structure of brain arteries

The network of arteries supplying blood flow to the brain is more likely to be incomplete in people who suffer migraine, a new study by researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania reports. Variations in arterial anatomy lead to asymmetries in cerebral blood flow that might contribute to the process triggering migraines.

The arterial supply of blood to the brain is protected by a series of connections between the major arteries, termed the “circle of Willis” after the English physician who first described it in the 17th century. People with migraine, particularly migraine with aura, are more likely to be missing components of the circle of Willis.

Migraine affects an estimated 28 million Americans, causing significant disability. Experts once believed that migraine was caused by dilation of blood vessels in the head, while more recently it has been attributed to abnormal neuronal signals. In this study, appearing in PLOS ONE, researchers suggest that blood vessels play a different role than previously suspected: structural alterations of the blood supply to the brain may increase susceptibility to changes in cerebral blood flow, contributing to the abnormal neuronal activity that starts migraine.

"People with migraine actually have differences in the structure of their blood vessels - this is something you are born with," said the study’s lead author, Brett Cucchiara, MD, Associate Professor of Neurology. "These differences seem to be associated with changes in blood flow in the brain, and it’s possible that these changes may trigger migraine, which may explain why some people, for instance, notice that dehydration triggers their headaches."

In a study of 170 people from three groups - a control group with no headaches, those who had migraine with aura, and those who had migraine without aura - the team found that an incomplete circle of Willis was more common in people with migraine with aura (73 percent) and migraine without aura (67 percent), compared to a headache-free control group (51 percent). The team used magnetic resonance angiography to examine blood vessel structure and a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging method pioneered at the University of Pennsylvania, called Arterial spin labeling (ASL), to measure changes in cerebral blood flow.

"Abnormalities in both the circle of Willis and blood flow were most prominent in the back of the brain, where the visual cortex is located. This may help explain why the most common migraine auras consist of visual symptoms such as seeing distortions, spots, or wavy lines," said the study’s senior author, John Detre, MD, Professor of Neurology and Radiology.

Both migraine and incomplete circle of Willis are common, and the observed association is likely one of many factors that contribute to migraine in any individual. The researchers suggest that at some point diagnostic tests of circle of Willis integrity and function could help pinpoint this contributing factor in an individual patient. Treatment strategies might then be personalized and tested in specific subgroups.

Image1: This image (click to enlarge) depicts the anatomy of the circle of Willis (A) and representative subjects with a complete (B) and incomplete circle of Willis (C). The arrowhead indicates absent anterior communicating artery and arrows indicate bilateral absent posterior communicating arteries.

(Source: uphs.upenn.edu, via nursingschooljournal)

biovisual:

WARNING: Not Safe for Work … or for Your Exam in Hematology
The Morphology of Human Blood Cells (1956)

Dorothy Sturm’s beautiful watercolors are difficult to distinguish from an actual microphotograph (except perhaps they are clearer and more detailed than a micrograph, and certainly superior to images from the 1950’s).

Sturm’s watercolor on paper illustrations, drawn directly from Wright-stained smears prepared by [microbiologists], depicted normal, pathological and infectious hematology with a clarity, detail and beauty that photomicrography of the 1950’s simply couldn’t approach. JAMA, in a review of the first edition, even called her work “of exceptional quality.”

[1] This table showing hematopoiesis (as it was understood in 1956) was the frontispiece of the first edition of Diggs’ The Morphology of Human Blood Cells. Here’s the key to this illustration.

[2] Cell types found in smears of peripheral blood from normal individuals

[3] Blood parasites

[4] Fat cells

[5] Megakarocytes and thrombocytes

SOURCE: Codex 99

(via lonewalker)